Food and Nutrition Ingredients

Food and Nutrition Ingredients


  • English name: Phosphocholine
  • English synonyms: CDP-CHOLINE
  • CAS: 987-78-0
  • Molecular formula: C14H26N4O11P2
  • Molecular weight: 488.33
  • Melting point: >185°C(dec.)


What’s the Phosphocholine?

Phosphocholine is a single nucleotide composed of ribose, cytosine, pyrophosphate, and choline. Phosphocholine, as an endogenous compound, is an indispensable intermediate in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine in cell membrane structure. Its formation is a rate-limiting step in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and a natural biochemical process in the cell membrane.

Phosphocholine naturally exists in cells of human and animal tissues, especially in organs. It can also enhance neuroplasticity and is a natural precursor of phospholipid synthesis, mainly phosphatidylcholine, or, more precisely, acts as a metabolic pathway choline source for acetylcholine biosynthesis.

The Specification of Phosphocholine

Specific rotation D25+19.0°(c=0.86inH2O)
Storage conditions dark, inert atmosphere, stored in a chemical refrigerator, below 20°C
Solubility Water (small amount)
Acidity coefficient (pKa) 4.4 (at25℃)
Color White
Stability Moisture sensitive

Quality control

Phosphocholine CE

Mechanism of action

Neuroprotective effects

Citicoline may have neuroprotective effects due to its preservation of cardiolipin and sphingomyelin, preservation of arachidonic acid content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, partial restoration of phosphatidylcholine levels, and stimulation of glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity. Citicoline’s effects may also be explained by the reduction of phospholipase A2 activity. Citicoline increases phosphatidylcholine synthesis.

The mechanism for this may be:

1. By converting 1, 2-diacylglycerol into phosphatidylcholine

2. Stimulating the synthesis of SAMe, which aids in membrane stabilization and reduces levels of arachidonic acid. This is especially important after ischemia when arachidonic acid levels are elevated.

Neuronal membrane

The brain preferentially uses choline to synthesize acetylcholine. This limits the amount of choline available to synthesize phosphatidylcholine.

When the availability of choline is low or the need for acetylcholine increases, phospholipids containing choline can be catabolized from neuronal membranes. These phospholipids include sphingomyelin and phosphatidylcholine.

Supplementation with citicoline can increase the amount of choline available for acetylcholine synthesis and aid in rebuilding membrane phospholipid stores after depletion. Citicoline decreases phospholipase stimulation.

Mechanism of action

This can lower levels of hydroxyl radicals produced after ischemia and prevent cardiolipin from being catabolized by phospholipase A2. It can also work to restore cardiolipin levels in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

Cell signalling

Citicoline may enhance cellular communication by increasing levels of neurotransmitters. The choline component of citicoline is used to create acetylcholine, which is a neurotransmitter in the human brain. Clinical trials have found that citicoline supplementation might improve focus and attention.

Glutamate transport

Citicoline lowers increased glutamate concentrations and raises decreased ATP concentrations induced by ischemia. Citicoline also increases glutamate uptake by increasing expression of EAAT2, a glutamate transporter, in vitro in rat astrocytes. It is suggested that the neuroprotective effects of citicoline after a stroke are due in part to citicoline’s ability to decrease levels of glutamate in the brain.

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